Building design

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Design of buildings and structures, or What should we build a house? 

Living in your own home is the dream of many townspeople. It is quite possible to bring it to life, but, in addition to financial investments, this requires knowledge of the intricacies of individual construction. It is important to understand what constitutes the design of residential buildings. There are a number of mandatory steps, but there are very desirable steps that should be included in the process if you want the house to stand for more than a dozen years. 

Stage 1: architectural and construction design

A house cannot be built for centuries without a competent project. This initial stage is perhaps the most important, because the design determines how the structure will look from the inside and outside, how strong and safe it will turn out to be, and how long it will stand. Also, thanks to the project, you predict the costs of construction work and materials.

The design of residential buildings consists of several stages: 

  1. Pre-design work. Their task is to find out whether it is possible to bring the project to life, identify possible difficulties that may interfere with construction, and estimate the approximate cost. For this, the specialists of the design organization study the territory, conduct geological studies, and draw up a plan of the terrain. At the same stage, a number of documents are prepared. 
  2. Preliminary design. At this stage, the customer gets an idea of ​​the appearance of the future house. A sketch is not yet a finished project, but only a sketch, but it already shows how the structure looks from the outside, how the rooms are located inside, which is the adjacent territory. The designer can make a computer 3D model: it especially clearly reflects the customer's intention. In addition to images, the draft design includes diagrams and drawings, which will serve as the basis for design and working documentation. 
  3. Working draft. It includes all the technical information required for construction: drawings, schedules, diagrams, job descriptions. In the working draft, every detail of the future structure is explained in detail: the depth of the foundation, the thickness of the walls and floors, the design of architectural units. Graphic and textual descriptions are preceded by careful calculations. The working draft also contains a specification of building materials: it indicates what and in what quantity will be required for construction.
  4. Engineering network installation project. This is part of the working project, which determines the location of heating systems, cold and hot water supply, sewerage, power supply, ventilation. The plan shows where the pipes, ventilation ducts, wires will pass, which rooms are allocated for heating and other equipment. 

Stage 2: landscaping 

One of the main advantages of living in a private house is having your own plot of land. The owners solve the problem of landscaping the local area in different ways, but perhaps the most attractive option is the use of landscape design techniques. A cozy green corner with shady gazebos, neat paths, picturesque ponds will give you the opportunity to relax and unwind after a working day, spend time in nature without leaving your home.

Landscaping works are also carried out in stages.

  1. Project creation... This is a collaborative effort between landscape designers, engineers and architects. Geodetic surveys and topographic surveys are being carried out. It is important to determine the size and shape of the site, the terrain, the composition of the soil, the level of groundwater, the location of ground and underground communications. Having received this information, you can begin to choose the style and develop the basic concept of the project. The designer performs the zoning of the territory, draws up a detailed master plan indicating the location of paths, gazebos, decorative ponds, green spaces and other elements. 
  1. Site preparation. Before starting the implementation of the project, the site is cleared: stumps are uprooted, construction waste and other foreign objects are removed. If necessary, the relief is leveled, the composition of the soil is improved. To remove moisture, a drainage system is arranged. 
  1. Engineering and construction works. Their list is individual, but almost always includes paving paths (for this, a separate drawing is previously developed, which is included in the general plan of the site), installation of lighting and irrigation systems, the creation of artificial reservoirs, the construction of small architectural forms, the arrangement of a parking lot and a playground. 
  1. Planting of greenery. Plants are planted in accordance with the dendrological plan and the planting drawing. They take into account their compatibility, requirements for soil composition, lighting and watering, as well as decorative properties.

Stage 3: Individual construction 

Many companies are engaged in the construction of low-rise buildings. It is most reasonable to entrust the task to the same organization that performed the design: then the cycle will be continuous, and you will avoid unnecessary time and money.  

Choose a reliable construction company that has been known in the market for more than one year and has managed to earn a good reputation. Make sure you have a certificate of approval for construction work. Evaluate completed projects, study portfolios and reviews.