Fire protection

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Reinforced concrete and metal constructions are used for basic non-existent building constructions, which are required to be protected from fire-fighting equipment. In the constituent legislature, institutional requirements for temporary fire resistance constructions, in the course of which they are obliged to preserve their non-existent abilities, and also to protect metal constructions. Consumption of insufficient construction capabilities in case of fire is important in the first expectation for safe water flowing from buildings.

Why is it necessary to protect the metal structure from fire?

The question may arise - why do we even need to protect metal structures from fire if the metal does not burn? A similar question can be asked about reinforced concrete structures.

The problem is that when heated to 500 ° C, metal structures lose strength and bearing capacity under the influence of their loads. The same processes take place in reinforced concrete structures, the strength of which under normal conditions is provided to a large extent by a frame made of steel reinforcement.

The fire resistance limit of metal without fire protection is from R10 to R15. This means that metal structures without fire protection will perform their functions in the event of a fire within 10-15 minutes. This time does not meet the standards for objects that involve the presence of people.

Let us consider in more detail the requirements for fire protection of metal structures, taking into account the fire resistance of objects.

The choice of the type of fire protection. Fire resistance of buildings

The choice of fire protection methods is determined by the requirements for the fire resistance of the buildings themselves, which are formulated in SP 2.13130.2020 “Fire protection systems. Ensuring fire resistance of objects of protection '.

In buildings of I and II degrees of fire resistance for load-bearing structures that ensure the strength and stability of the building, including columns and trusses, load-bearing walls, ceilings and diaphragms, the fire resistance of these elements must be ensured by using structural solutions and materials:

1. Constructive fire protection (coating with heat-insulating non-combustible plates or thick-layer compounds).

2. Thin layer intumescent fire retardant paints.

Types of fire protection of metal structures

So, for fire protection of metal structures in buildings, constructive fire protection or intumescent thin-layer paints can be used.

Structural fire protection of metal structures is a fire-retardant heat-insulating layer made of special materials, which prevents the heating of metal structures from fire.

Materials of constructive fire protection:

  • mineral wool slabs,
  • drywall sheets,
  • asbestos sheets,
  • brick
  • sprayable thick-layer fire retardants and plasters

Constructive fire protection, realized by cladding metal structures with fire-resistant thermal insulation materials, for example, mineral wool slabs and drywall, is a traditional method of protecting metal structures from fire.

The advantage of this method is its high fire retardant ability. The disadvantages include high labor intensity and cost of work.

The use of constructive fire protection requires the development of a fire protection project, which takes into account the methods of fastening fire protection structures that correspond to the technical documentation for the system and fire protection test reports.

Constructive fire protection from thick-layer fire-retardant coatings and compounds.

Such materials do not swell when heated. They provide high temperature insulation through a combination of low thermal conductivity and sufficient insulation thickness.

Fire-retardant coatings and plasters are widely used for fire protection of air ducts, both ventilation and air ducts of smoke removal systems.

Fire retardant paints.

Thin layer intumescent fire retardant paints provide fire protection for metal structures by expanding from heat. In this case, a thick coke coating is created around the metal, which has a low thermal conductivity and high fire resistance. This ensures the required time to protect the metal from high temperatures.

Fire retardant paints provide significant advantages in cases where the project allows their use:

  • fire retardant efficiency up to R120,
  • there is practically no additional load on structures,
  • favorable cost of fire protection,
  • high speed and manufacturability of application,
  • the ability to carry out work in a wide range of temperatures, from + 50oС to -15oС,
  • low material consumption,
  • long guaranteed service life,
  • aesthetic appearance that can act as a finish.

In construction legislation, there are many requirements for building structures in terms of fire safety. There are many different indicators and standards that must be met for the successful acceptance of a constructed facility.

Taking into account all these factors, choosing the right and at the same time the most technologically advanced and economical fire protection solutions that will ensure the safety of people in the building is the task of the design organization developing the fire protection project.